What Are The Factors That Affect The Quality Of Electroplating?

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Why is the electroplating quality unqualified? What factors are responsible? Let’s analyze it together!

What Are The Factors That Affect The Quality Of Electroplating?

As a kind of basic industrial process technology, electroplating has a very wide range of applications in processing. Industrial parts are processed using the electroplating machinery process.

The electroplating layers with special physical and chemical properties is plated on the surface of the parts. On the one hand, it can increase the protection and wear resistance of the parts. On the other hand, it can also play a certain decorative role.

The electroplating process can significantly improve the performance of component products.

In the manufacturing industry, some parts are mainly electroplated with chrome and zinc. Chrome plating can improve the wear resistance of workpieces; galvanized parts can enhance anti-corrosion properties and beautify them.

The quality of electroplated parts plays a decisive role in the quality of equipment. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the main reasons that determine the quality of electroplated layers and take targeted improvement measures.

The author analyzes the main reasons that determine electroplating quality from the two perspectives of internal factors and external factors.

1. Internal factors that determine the quality of electroplated layers

(1) Pretreatment of parts

The tightness of the combination between the coating and the surface of the parts, the aesthetics, and the quality of the anti-corrosion ability are all closely related to the quality of the pretreatment work on the surface of the parts.

The remaining oil stains, metal oxide scale, and rust on the surface of parts hinder the contact between the electroplating layer and the surface of metal parts, which will have a great impact on the quality of electroplating.

If there is a very thin oil film or oxide film on the surface of the plated parts, although the appearance of the electroplated layer will not be greatly affected, the bonding force of the electroplated layer will be greatly weakened.

Therefore, proper implementation of parts pretreatment is an important prerequisite for obtaining high-quality electroplated products.

In the pretreatment work, oil removal, dirt removal, and rust removal detergents with appropriate concentrations should be used, and oil stains floating on the surface of the solution should be removed in a timely manner.

As the use process increases, the impurity content in the liquid increases, and the cleaning ability will continue to decrease, so it must be replaced regularly during treatment.

(2) The influence of electroplating solution on the quality of electroplated layer

The ratio of different components in the electroplating solution needs to be maintained within the optimal electroplating process range. During electroplating production, regular laboratory analysis of the liquid content in the tank must be carried out to ensure that the ratio of each component is within the allowable range of the process. within range;

Secondly, based on the different production tasks, various ingredients should be replenished in a timely manner based on laboratory analysis. Before the impurity content in the electroplating solution exceeds the appropriate range, the electroplating solution should be processed and purified in a timely manner to maintain the electroplating solution within the most appropriate operating range. .

In addition, during the electroplating process, harmful impurities will be mixed into the plating solution for many different reasons.

Because the types and characteristics of these impurities are different, and the same impurities have different effects on different plating solutions.

It is necessary to combine the actual electroplating production conditions and use the Hexcel cell to analyze the impact on the performance of the electroplating solution and the quality of the electroplated layer under specific circumstances, and deal with impurities in the electroplating solution in a timely manner.

(3) Control of electroplating process conditions

The control of electroplating process conditions determines the quality of the electroplated layer to a large extent.

Therefore, reasonably controlling the process conditions of different electroplating tasks is the key to improving the quality of the coating, which requires practical work experience.

The adjustment and selection of electroplating process parameters such as current density, temperature, and pH environment are very important.

Taking chromium plating as an example, when the current density and temperature conditions are not suitable, it will have a significant impact on the cathode current efficiency of the electroplating solution, the tightness and appearance of the plating layer.

When the temperature is high, the current density should be increased as appropriate to achieve appropriate coating requirements.

Each condition will restrict each other, so the inability to control the process conditions correctly and reasonably will greatly affect the overall quality of the electroplated product.

2. Main external factors affecting the quality of electroplated layers

(1)Storage and packaging of products

In atmospheric environments, ferrous metals usually use galvanizing layers to avoid corrosion.

However, once the galvanized layer comes into contact with materials such as alkyd paint, phenolic paint, phenolic plastics, plywood, damp wood, etc., it will quickly corrode the galvanized layer, and the corrosion products will gradually thicken over time.

In the environment with a small amount of organic volatile gases, the atmospheric corrosion process is accelerated, which is usually called atmospheric corrosion. Paint, resin, plastic and other materials may cause atmospheric corrosion.

The higher the concentration of organic volatile atmosphere in the atmospheric environment, the more serious the corrosion will be on the electroplating layer.

In addition, the organic volatile atmosphere will only cause corrosion to the galvanized layer under humid conditions.

That is to say, in dry air, corrosion is usually difficult to occur. Therefore, isolating the organic volatile atmosphere and keeping the air dry has a positive effect on the protection of the galvanized layer.

Therefore, when electroplating products are stored, the environment in the warehouse must be controlled to prevent atmospheric corrosion of parts.

Moreover, during transportation, product packaging conditions will have a direct impact on the corrosion resistance of electroplated parts.

For galvanized parts, they must be packed in wooden boxes and add an appropriate amount of desiccant to the inner packaging to ensure that the parts do not corrode and protect product quality.

(2) The impact of human factors on electroplating quality

Human factors are the most significant and huge factor in the quality of plating in the entire electroplating process.

In the electroplating production process, it is not difficult to find that under the same conditions of electroplating process, production equipment and raw materials, due to differences in operators, the appearance quality of electroplated products will also be different, and there may even be product quality problems that can be avoided or reduced. The impact of human factors on the quality of electroplated layers.

Therefore, in actual electroplating work, we should first formulate complete and standardized standardized operating specifications to promote the standardization process of electroplating work.

Secondly, it is necessary to give full play to the management rights of management workers, supervise and inspect the implementation of electroplating process specifications at the production site from time to time, and improve supervision and inspection files in a timely manner.

And we should pay more attention to the laboratory analysis position and strive to improve the professional skills of the analysis team to ensure that the components of the electroplating solution are maintained within the most appropriate range.

Thirdly, regular professional skills training and assessment should be organized for electroplating operators to ensure that the operating skills of on-the-job workers meet the relevant requirements of electroplating production.

(3) The impact of the production system of electroplating enterprises on electroplating quality

In the production of electroplating enterprises, the production process of some parts requires the cooperation of many different departments.

As electroplating is the last process, there are often scratches, tight construction schedules, and continuous rush for goods, which in turn causes the electroplating time to not meet the process requirements and restricts the quality of the electroplated products.

Coordinate the effective transfer and processing schedule of the production department, and reserve sufficient processing time for the electroplating process to ensure the quality of electroplated products.

(4) The impact of design drawings on electroplating quality

Usually, for parts that require electroplating, only the plating type is marked on the drawing, and there are relatively few markings on the electroplated surface, which often results in defective products during electroplating processing.

In key parts, the electroplating process should ensure the bonding strength and appearance of the electroplated layer without obvious defects.

Therefore, the key positions of electroplating must be clearly marked on the drawings so that the hanging fixtures and mounting positions can be better selected to ensure the quality of the electroplated workpieces.

The improvement of the quality of electroplating products will better serve the actual needs of the manufacturing industry and can also greatly promote the overall development of my country's electroplating industry.

In short, we should pay attention to and respond to the impact of internal or external factors on the quality of electroplated parts in electroplating production.

The author combined his own work experience to briefly analyze and discuss the reasons that determine the quality of electroplating layers. However, how to improve the quality of electroplated products also depends on the joint efforts of workers in the entire electroplating industry.

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